Nelson Mandela was born in 1918 to one of the royal families of the Transkei, the eldest son of a Temba chief. He studied at the University of Fort Hare until he was expelled for participating in a student protest. He became a leading member of the ANC until 1963, when he was arrested, tried and sentenced to life imprisonment. He spent the next eighteen years in the maximum-security prison for political prisoners on Robben Island, and was later moved to Pollsmoor Prison. During his incarceration he became a potent symbol for the anti-apartheid movement, and in response to increasing domestic and international pressure was finally freed on 11 February 1990. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, and in 1994 was elected president of South Africa in its first multiracial elections. He led the country until 1999. Mandela died in December, 2013.